Encryption

Decoding Encryption: How to Keep Your Data Safe

Encryption acts like an impenetrable online vault, scrambling your messages, files, photos, and data with complex mathematical encodings so only authorised parties can decipher and access them. Understanding this cypher technology is key for protecting privacy across your digital life!  

Read our comprehensive briefing to learn encryption basics and how these technologies guard your sensitive information against increasingly sophisticated hacking and spying threats. 


Encryption 101: Cyphers for the Digital Age

Encryption converts plain data like text messages, emails, and files into scrambled cypher text only recoverable with a secret key or password. It ensures critical information remains private and secure as it flows through devices and networks.

Common examples include websites using HTTPS protocols, password managers protecting login credentials, encrypted messaging apps like Signal secreting conversations, full disk encryption shielding device data, and encrypted archives securing backed-up files in the cloud. 

Without the proper decryption key, encrypted data looks like total indecipherable random junk! The cypher transforms and hides patterns within information that would otherwise allow hackers and spies to easily read your communications and steal data.

Encrypted data flows or rests protected on almost all modern devices and transactions – often without you even realizing it! But directly understanding this vital privacy technology empowers you to more consciously secure sensitive information against data breaches, unauthorized surveillance, and cybercriminals.

Common Encryption Algorithms

AES and RSA dominate modern encryption protocols and applications. 

AES provides fast and efficient symmetric encryption well-suited for handling bulk data. It relies on a single secret key for both scrambling and unscrambling cypher text. AES forms the underlying basis for encrypted data both in transit and at rest.

RSA encryption represents asymmetric encryption protocols using intrinsically linked public and private key pairs for obfuscating data. The public key locks data, while only the private key can then unlock the contents. RSA enables secure transmission of AES data keys needed to initialize encrypted sessions.

Together AES and RSA enable virtually all modern cyber security including HTTPS websites, encrypted chat services, and hard drive encryption schemes by efficiently encrypting data payloads while allowing secure AES key exchanges.

Cryptographic hash functions like SHA256 also provide important one-way transformation of information into fixed-length strings called digests rather than recoverable plaintext. Hashing verifies data integrity, ensuring messages, files, and data remain unchanged in transit. Any modification alters the output digest alerting recipients of tampering. Hashes complement encryption rather than replacing it.

Understanding the unique strengths of AES, RSA, SHA and other core algorithms allows you to better evaluate the specific encryption protocols guarding your apps, sites, and services. Not all are created equal! Seek services leveraging modern standards rather than outdated or proprietary schemes.

Securing Data in Transit

SSL/TLS network protocols establish secure internet connections for email, messaging, and web browsing by encrypting session data transiting between destinations. This protects information as it briefly pings along networks before reaching intended recipients.

Without properly implemented transit encryption protocols, emails, search queries, texts, and video calls would broadcast openly for network sniffers, surveillance gear, and hackers to intercept and siphon!

When visiting websites, always check the site uses secure HTTPS addressing rather than plain HTTP – indicating critical encryption is active for that domain before submitting anything sensitive online. Transit encryption applies to decipher the moment data leaves your device through intermediate relays and networks until it reaches the destination security. Encrypted tunnels shield information flows from prying eyes.

Business networks as well as public WiFi hotspots found in most cafes, hotels, airports, and other locations often lack strong endpoint encryption. VPN services fill this gap by establishing encrypted tunnels around your entire internet session regardless of the underlying network weaknesses. Traffic to and from your device gets ciphered.

Safeguarding Data at Rest

Beyond shielding data as it transits between destinations, encryption also provides vital protection of sensitive information stored long term. This applies not just to data persisting directly on your local devices, but also to offline remote servers underpinning apps and web services.

Full disk encryption found on most modern PCs and mobile devices cryptographically scrambles all files and system data on the core drive when at rest. This prevents device theft or improper decommissioning from exposing personal documents. Likewise, encrypting external storage devices protects backup data against physical compromise. 

Remote services from email platforms to business software suites now encrypt their underlying databases by default as well, hedging against hackers directly compromising servers to siphon their stores of user emails, documents, and other handled data. Breaches can still leak usernames and passwords, but not plaintext secrets.

Use encrypted archive formats like Zip/RAR with strong passwords to optionally add further cypher protection for cloud storage services lacking server-side encryption. This puts you fully in control of access rather than relying on the provider’s security posture.

Treat encryption as essential armour enveloping sensitive data, no matter where it rests long term – locally or in remote server farms. Keep volumes locked down while powered up AND down.

Managing Encryption Keys   

The secret keys or passphrases unlocking encrypted data represent just as critical secrets requiring careful management to prevent unauthorized decryption. 

Use trusted password managers to generate, store, and fill strong unique encryption keys protecting your most important accounts, identity records, and data archives. This condenses secrets within a single master encrypted vault rather than haphazardly scattershot securing everything separately. Centralizing encryption keys aids disaster recovery.

Enable multi-factor authentication on the master password manager account and any other primary encryption keys for services offering it as an option. This combines multiple factors like password AND biometric checks before unlocking sensitive data stores. Go beyond standard passwords to increase assurance. 

Forgetting passwords on encrypted volumes often forces resetting encryption entirely by deleting the original key, instantly erasing all data in the process! Guard all decryption secrets closely via password managers, secure cloud backups, or even physical safe deposits. 

Rotate encryption keys and master passwords every 90 days as a security best practice, preventing excessive brute force attempts during any single period of compromise. Automate key rotation wherever IT solutions allow.

Automating Encryption

Implementing strong encryption manually across devices, media, and services can prove daunting. Seek tools centralizing protections to cover common pain points:

Full disk and removable drive encryption functionality now built directly into macOS, Windows and Linux transparently encrypts boot drive data at rest after a quick setup. Phone OSs like iOS and Android also encrypt device storage by default.

Password manager apps greatly simplify generating, filling, and synchronizing strong unique keys across web logins and data troves. Enable two-factor authentication for master account access.

VPN router-based services extend encryption tunnels to cover all home devices without individual device configuration while leading VPN apps to cypher mobile data for travel and public WiFi security.

Domain-validated SSL/TLS certificates enable small business websites to implement HTTPS without expensive extensive vetting. Let’s Encrypt provides this protection free.

For backing up important archives in cloud storage providers lacking server-side encryption, use free utilities like 7-Zip and WinRAR supporting AES encryption before uploading for enhanced security.

Leveraging set-it-and-forget solutions reduces the knowledge needed to enact strong encryption, putting protection on autopilot!

Mitigating Encryption Risks

Despite strengths in securing data, encryption also carries a few inherent risks:

Encrypted data recovery represents a leading hazard to accounts, passwords, documents, and records stored only in encrypted form. Guard decryption keys closely and ensure recovery options exist for data disasters.

Government demands to downgrade encryption protocols periodically arise in the name of public safety and national security monitoring. However, weaker schemes compromise everyone’s protection equally by increasing crackable vulnerabilities. 

Quantum computing advances now threaten the future integrity of RSA and ECC asymmetric encryption as their factoring models allow prime number cracking. Combining symmetric AES encryption provides a hedge, but long-term migration to new quantum-resistant protocols looms.

While no panacea for eliminating all data breach and hacking risks, robust encryption applied properly guarantees privacy and integrity across devices, communications, and stored data against all but state-level adversaries. Understand its role in hardening vulnerable points.

Don’t let encryption intimidate you. Just focus on properly implementing modern protocols vetted by cyber security professionals to harden major accounts, communications, and data at rest vulnerable to attack. Keep reading to expand your comprehension of data shields!


Frequently Asked Questions

What’s the difference between symmetric and asymmetric encryption?

Symmetric encryption uses a single secret key for both encrypting and decrypting data – like a door with the same key for locking AND unlocking. Asymmetric encryption relies uses different mathematically connected public and private key pairs, improving secure distribution for locking data that only authorized owners can unlock.  

Are hash functions like SHA256 a form of encryption?

Not exactly. While complex output, hashing data with algorithms like SHA256 or MD5 transforms inputs into fixed-length strings called digests with no known reverse computations. They serve to verify data integrity as any changes alter the resulting hash value. Hashes augment encryption rather than replace it.

What are some examples of transit data encryption?

Common cases safeguarded while temporarily moving between two points include HTTPS website connections, VPN tunnels hiding network traffic flows, SSL/TLS protocols encrypting network sessions, secure messaging apps, secure FTP transferring files, and SSH encrypting login sessions.

What are some examples of at-rest data encryption?

Full disk encryption on powered-down laptops, encrypted databases, password manager vaults storing credentials, encrypted online backups/drives, encrypted archives, and similar technologies focused on securing longer-term stored data.

How often should encryption keys get rotated?

For very high security, large enterprises rotate asymmetric encryption keys every 30 days or less. But for most consumer applications, rotating keys approximately every 90 days provides adequate security against excess brute force attacks should a key get compromised. 

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